DNTP study examines oral vanadium toxicity in rodent model
Two vanadium compounds show different absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties in male and female rats, according to researchers from the NIEHS Division of the National Toxicology Program (DNTP).
Vanadium is a naturally occurring element that is present in a variety of minerals, coal, and crude oils. Low levels of vanadium are detected in many foods and in drinking water, suggesting that there is a potential for human exposure. Although vanadium is an environmental contaminant, little is known about its impact on human health.
To assess vanadium toxicity, the researchers exposed rats to drinking water containing vanadyl sulfate or sodium metavanadate, representing two prevalent oxidation states of vanadium in the environment. Exposure started before birth and lasted for three months after weaning. Vanadium concentration in blood and urine increased with the exposure concentration for both compounds. Compared with males, females had higher levels of vanadium in their blood after vanadyl sulfate exposure, and higher levels in blood and urine after exposure to sodium metavanadate. Animals exposed to sodium metavanadate had up to three-fold higher vanadium levels in blood and urine compared with vanadyl sulfate-exposed animals.
According to the authors, the results will aid in the interpretation of animal data regarding vanadium toxicity and help to determine the relevance of animal toxicity findings to human health.
Citation: Waidyanatha S, Weber FX, Fallacara DM, Harrington JM, Levine K, Robinson VG, Sparrow BR, Stout MD, Fernando R, Hooth MJ, Xie G, Roberts GK. 2022. Systemic exposure and urinary excretion of vanadium following perinatal subchronic exposure to vanadyl sulfate and sodium metavanadate via drinking water. Toxicol Lett 360:53–61.